When you sleep, what do you dream of? Do you dream of enjoyable things like lounging in the beach? Do you dream of being in a situation youve never even thought of? What is psychoanalysis?Psychoanalysis is a specific treatment wherein a trained professional, or an analyst, listens to a patients thoughts, then formulates and explains the unconscious basis behind the persons behaviour or condition. In some cases, analysts ask about what the patient dreamt about the previous night and interpret information based on those images. This treatment was founded the man who introduced the concept of unconscious function Dr. Sigmund Freud.Who is Sigmund Freud?Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and psychologist who started the psychoanalytic school of psychology. He introduced the idea of the unconscious mind and its mechanism of repression. He also said that dreams are the window to a persons unconscious desires.The Unconscious MindThroughout the evolution of Freuds psychoanalytic theories, he considered the unconscious mind as a sentient force of will influenced by human drive and yet operating well below the perceptual conscious mind. For Freud, the unconscious is the depository of instinctual desires, needs, and psychic actions. While past thoughts and memories may be deleted from immediate consciousness, they direct the thoughts and feelings of the individual from the realm of the unconscious. Freud divided mind into the Ego, or the conscious mind, and the two parts of the unconscious: the Id or instincts and the Superego. The id is seen as the source of drives demanding immediate satisfaction, and the superego as internalized parental and social authority, the work of the ego being to mediate the resultant conflicting demands. He used the idea of the unconscious in order to explain certain kinds of neuroses.Defense mechanismFreud believed that people develop defense mechanisms to protect the conscious mind from certain aspects of reality that it may have difficulty accepting. Examples of defense mechanisms are: repression, reaction-formation, regression, displacement, and rationalization.RepressionThis is the most commonly manifested defense mechanism among the ones mentioned above. It is the act of excluding desires and impulses from the conscious mind and attempting to hold it in the subconscious. Repression is commonly associated with traumatic or harsh event that happened in the past. But it appears that trauma more often strengthens the memory due to heightened emotional and/or physical sensations.DreamsFreud postulated that dreams were wish fulfillments. That it provides a fantasy satisfaction of inner desires that have been pushed back to the unconscious. Freud also said that the unconscious itself is timeless and does not mature. Even as the body and the conscious mind age and mature, our unconscious remains infantile, and demands immediate gratification of its desires.When youre asleep, your repressed desires and impulses are relaxed. It doesnt, however, mean that your inner desires will appear directly in your dreams. Freud said that these desires get filtered by a process he calls dream work. He believed there are four kinds of dream work: Condensation. Multiple thoughts merge into a single symbol in the dream.Displacement. Inner desires manifest themselves as objects related to it.Symbolization. Ideas and/or impulses are turned into pictures.Secondary revision. This is the rational gloss we put on a dream, turning the dream into a manageable story as we remember it.Freud believed dream interpretation should concentrate on the underlying symbols in the dream, rather than the story of the dream, which he believed to be just a disguise.As what the late Sigmund Freud said, your dreams are an extension of your innermost desires and wishes. The next time you dream of something, check and see if it has any relevance to what youre feeling. Your unconscious may already be telling you something.
Pregnancy is a wondrous moment. It is the time when women are excited to be called moms. It is a great opportunity to learn about child's growth and development. But sometimes it can be the other way around. Pregnancy is not always such a happy experience for some. Pregnancy can also be a time for worry. It can also be a moment of confusion. A woman's decision to begin a pregnancy carries with it the acceptance of the lifelong responsibility to be a parent. Ideally, effective parenting begins even before the moment of conception, when the woman confirms her desire to have a child and is physically and mentally prepared for the challenges of pregnancy, birth, and parenting. However, most women go through a lot of changes during pregnancy that sometimes, it is causing them stress as well as numerous emotional and physical changes. As a result, many pregnant women develop depression during their pregnancies. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder, so it's a commonly encountered pre-existing condition during pregnancy. Depression has both physiological as well a sociological causes. It is actually caused by a number of different factors. But, it is most likely to be linked to a change in the levels of chemicals in the brain. These chemicals govern our moods, and when they become disrupted, it can lead to depression.During pregnancy, the rapid change in a woman's bodys hormones can trigger a change in the levels of these chemicals, resulting in depression. Interestingly though, women have it twice as often as men, and among women, there is an increased tendency toward it during the reproductive years. It has been proven that the rapid rise in hormone levels during pregnancy is actually a very common trigger for depression. At least 20% of pregnant women experience some depressive symptoms during their pregnancies, while 10% of pregnant women develop full-blown clinical depression. Depression during pregnancy is actually much more common then many people realize. At one time, health care professionals thought that pregnant women couldnt suffer from depression because of their pregnancy hormones. It was believed that these hormones protected against mood disorders like depression.Any pregnant woman can develop depression at some point throughout her pregnancy. There are several causes of it during pregnancy, some of which are the following:having a personal or family history of depressionrelationship or marital conflictage at time of pregnancyunplanned pregnancyliving alonelimited social supportprevious miscarriagepregnancy confusions and complicationshistory of emotional, physical or sexual abuseBecause depression can often drain a woman's desire and energy, pregnant women with the disorder may not seek appropriate prenatal care. Depression during pregnancy may also increase the likelihood that a pregnant woman will abuse alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs during pregnancy. When it is most severe, clinically diagnosed depression can be a psychiatric emergency. Because a woman is in a very difficult period of adjustment and less likely to climb out of her despair, hopelessness, and suffering, she poses a danger to herself and her new baby.Pregnancy is a particularly active field for depression to either start anew or worsen if already a problem. The extra physical, financial, marital, and sexual stresses come whether one is ready or not. On top of that, any new feelings of poor self-image can reinforce depression's already negative self-image problems.Preparing for a new baby is a lot of hard work, but a woman's health should come first. A pregnant woman should resist the urge to get everything done, she should limit her activities and do things that will help her relax. Talking about things that concern a pregnant woman is also very important during these difficult times. A pregnant woman should ask for support, which most often than not, she will get. Remember that taking care oneself is an essential part of taking care of the unborn child.
Smoking or puffing a cigarette is a vice that literally enslaves millions of people around the world. It is amazing how a small roll of finely cut tobacco, enclosed in a thin, paper wrapper could cause so much addiction. More than just an addiction, smoking is a very serious health risk. In fact, the World Health Organization says that smoking is responsible for at least five million deaths each year. The WHO also estimates that at least 650 million people (the estimated total number of smokers around the world today) will eventually die due to tobacco-related diseases. The said agency also released strong warnings about smoking during pregnancy. Pregnant women who smoke are at high risk of giving birth to premature or underweight babies. Some birth defects have been attributed to cigarette use. Smokers have been found to be overwhelmingly more prone to heart disease and respiratory problems compared with non-smokers. In another study, the American Cancer Society pointed out that about 3,000 non-smoking adults die each year of lung cancer because of the effects of second-hand smoke. Second-hand smoke is a mixture of the smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. The smoke exhaled by smokers are involuntarily inhaled by non-smokers. The "second-hand smoke" actually lingers in the air for several hours where a smoker puffed a cigarette. Second-hand smoke, also known as Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is now considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a cause of cancer, a classification that has long been made by various health and medical associations. Second-hand smoke contains formaldehyde, benzene, vinyl chloride, arsenic ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide --- all of which are toxic or carcinogenic. Cited below are some of the facts and important information about the risks of smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke: lOne in two lifetime smokers will die as a result of cigarette use; lThe mixture of nicotine and carbon monoxide in each cigarette can increase blood pressure and heart rate;lSmoking is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack;lThe tar coats your lungs like a soot in a chimney and causes cancer;lIt is a slow way to die. You may get emphysema, bronchitis, and other cardio-pulmonary diseases; andlSmokers are more prone to lung cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, and even breast cancer.Quitting smoking is a difficult undertaking that demands discipline and commitment. Some can quit cold turkey while other need professional help and medication. Nicotine replacements in the form of patches have also been released in the market to help smokers who want to stop their habit. While smoking is, in reality, an addition --- there is help available. Quitting this vice is a life-and-death issue. Getting rid of tobacco will not only help decrease health risks, it would also help spare non-smokers from the dangers of second-hand smoke.
Not a few women who have been confronted with the reality of unwanted pregnancy have chosen to resolve their problem through abortion. Abortion is a procedure that makes use of medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or fetus and placenta from the uterus to end a pregnancy. The procedure is usually done by a licensed physician or someone acting under the supervision of a licensed physician. Research shows that women are just as likely to get an abortion whether it is outlawed or legal. Statistics show that one out of five pregnancies ends in abortion. In a study examining abortion trends from 1995 to 2003, experts also found that abortion rates are virtually equal in rich and poor countries, and that half of all abortions worldwide are done in an unsafe manner.In spite of the legal status of abortion, it has never dissuaded women who seek to end unwanted pregnancy. Abortion accounts for 13 percent of maternal mortality worldwide. While 70,000 women die every year from unsafe abortions, an additional five million women suffer permanent or temporary injury as a result of this procedure.Although worldwide, abortion rates have dipped from about 46 million in 1995 to just under 42 million in 2003, the rate of unsafe abortion didn't change at all. In developing countries, the incidence of unsafe abortion continue to rise with nearly half the procedures still performed illegally in potentially dangerous conditions, making it a public health crisis and an assault to human rights. The increase in contraceptive medication is seen by some sectors as a way to minimize, if not totally eliminate, unsafe abortion. However, while more countries are allowing women to have abortions in a legal way, many women are still receiving medical attention only after a procedure has gone wrong. Women shouldn't have to hurt themselves before they get the necessary medical attention. Unsafe abortion may be defined as a procedure performed by people lacking the required skills or done in an environment that does not conform to the proper medical standards. The developing world comprised the biggest share of the abortion pie with a figure of about 35 million abortion cases. And nearly 97 percent of all unsafe abortions were in poor countries. In eastern Europe, there are more abortions than live births, or 105 abortions for every 100 live births. In Western Europe, there are 23 abortions for every 100 live births. In North America, there are 33 abortions for every 100 live births, while in Africa, where abortion is illegal in most African states, there are 17 abortions for every 100 live births.Providing safe abortions depends on a working health-care system. Experts believe that improving access to safe abortion requires improvement on women's health. In the last two decades, there has been little improvement to help women survive pregnancy and childbirth, especially in third world countries due to poverty. While improvement in child health can be done with government support, such as immunization against various diseases, the same cannot be said with improving women's health as funds are restricted from any health services associated with abortion. Abortion is about making a decision about ending the life of a baby. The debate is still on whether the fetus can be medically considered a human being --- a factor that defines the morality or lack of morality of the choice to undergo an abortion. Indeed, given the very sensitive nature of this procedure , abortion should be considered a very personal decision that requires counseling.
Many fear that our younger generation are being forced into a world of vedging out in front of the TV, spending hours playing computer games and indulging in what is perceived to be quite frankly a lazy lifestyle. Research into the growing rates of childhood obesity points towards such a lifestyle as one of the main triggering factors for this illness.Campaigners are desperately trying to combat the ever growing statistics of obesity in children through a myriad of activities (http://www.feedmebetter.com ). Jamie Olivers landmark campaign Feed Me Better has grown from strength to strength and has forced schools across the UK to review the items known as junk food on the school menus. Its finally time to say goodbye to turkey twizzlers and beans and chips. Thank goodness!Undoubtedly children that are encouraged to eat a healthy diet and lead an active lifestyle will be in a better position both physically and mentally. So what can be done to lure our youngsters away from hours in front of the TV or computer?! Too many kids miss the opportunity to enjoy healthy activities in the fresh air.There are a number of outdoor products on the market tailored to meet the needs of children, whilst maintaining a high standard of safety. The Early Learning Centre (ELC) offers some great products for your garden. With the summer finally in our midst its a great time to check out whats available on the market. A fantastic product that is loved by all has got to be the trampoline. It is thought that the Eskimos, who used to toss each other up into the air on a walrus skin, came up with the first official type of trampolining. Here in the UK trampolining is said to have kicked off when a number of people holding a large blanket would toss a person into the air and catch them.Trampolining is not only fun, it is healthy and an ideal method for children to remain active in a safe environment. The ELC site offers a buyers guide to trampolines (http://www.elc.co.uk/trampolines ) to ensure you select the most suitable type for your children. Bounce surrounds and trampoline covers are also available.In fact, whos to say exciting forms of exercise like trampolining should be limited to children? Why not get one big enough for you to enjoy too. Not only would this help you to keep off the pounds, it would set a great example to our younger generation.